MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023
Q 1. Compare the views of the Marxist historians and Subaltern Studies on Indian nationalism.
Q 2. Write a note on economic nationalism with special reference to Indian thinkers.
Q 3. Write a note on the Non-cooperation movement.
Q 4. Analyse the achievements of the Congress ministries between 1937 and 1939.
Q 5. Write short notes in about 250 words each on any two of the following:
a) Non-modernist theories of nationalism
b) Swadeshi movement
c) Political ideas of the Swaraj Party
d) Political mobilisation in the Princely States.
Q 6. Describe the various forms which the popular protests took between 1945 and 1947.
Q 7. Discuss the views of various historians regarding the relationship between nationalism and peasantry.
Q 8. Write a note on the relationship between the nationalist movement and the Dalits.
Q 9. Analyse the Gandhian strategy to fight against the colonial state in India.
Q 10. Write short notes in about 250 words each on any two of the following:
a) Reasons for Congress’ Acceptance of Partition
b) The Attitude of the Indian Capitalists towards the Congress
c) The Relations between Congress and Muslims from 1885 to 1914
d) Salient Features of the Indian Constitution.
Ans 1. The views of Marxist historians and Subaltern Studies on Indian nationalism have been subject to scholarly debate and discussion.
Both approaches offer unique perspectives on the nature, origins, and dynamics of Indian nationalism, but they also differ in their interpretations and analyses.
In this essay, we will compare the views of Marxist historians and Subaltern Studies on Indian nationalism, highlighting their similarities and differences.
Marxist historians view Indian nationalism as a product of class struggle and the struggle against colonial oppression. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They emphasize the role of the bourgeoisie or the capitalist class in leading the national struggle against British colonial rule.
According to Marxist historians, Indian nationalism was primarily driven by the middle-class intelligentsia, who sought to unite different social groups under the banner of nationalism to challenge colonial exploitation and establish a class-based society.
They argue that the bourgeoisie used nationalism as a means to achieve their economic and political interests, such as protecting their property rights and gaining political power. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Marxist historians also highlight the influence of economic factors, such as the emergence of capitalism in India, on the rise of nationalism.
They argue that the expansion of capitalism in India led to the growth of a native capitalist class that sought to challenge the dominance of British imperialism and establish their own economic interests.
They also emphasize the exploitation of Indian workers and peasants by British colonialism, which fueled the resistance against colonial rule and the demand for nationalism as a means of achieving economic and social justice.
On the other hand, Subaltern Studies, a school of historiography that emerged in the 1980s, focuses on the marginalized and subaltern groups in Indian society, such as peasants, laborers, tribals, and lower-caste communities.
Subaltern Studies scholars, drawing on the theories of Antonio Gramsci, emphasize the agency and resistance of these subaltern groups in shaping Indian nationalism.
They argue that the dominant narrative of Indian nationalism, which focuses on the role of the middle-class intelligentsia and the bourgeoisie, has ignored the contributions and struggles of the subaltern groups.
According to Subaltern Studies scholars, Indian nationalism was not just a movement led by the middle-class intelligentsia, but it was also shaped by the struggles of the marginalized and subaltern groups. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They highlight the resistance of peasants and workers against colonial land policies, labor exploitation, and oppressive social structures, which contributed to the emergence of nationalism.
Subaltern Studies scholars also emphasize the role of cultural and religious practices of the subaltern groups in shaping their identity and resistance against colonial rule.
They argue that the subaltern groups played a significant role in shaping the discourse of nationalism through their languages, songs, folklore, and oral traditions.
One of the key differences between the views of Marxist historians and Subaltern Studies on Indian nationalism is the emphasis on class struggle versus the agency of subaltern groups. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Marxist historians focus on class struggle as the driving force behind Indian nationalism, emphasizing the role of the bourgeoisie and capitalist class in leading the national struggle.
On the other hand, Subaltern Studies scholars emphasize the agency and resistance of the marginalized and subaltern groups, highlighting their contributions to the emergence of nationalism.
Another difference is the focus on economic factors versus cultural and social factors. Marxist historians emphasize the economic factors, such as the emergence of capitalism and class struggle, in shaping Indian nationalism.
They see nationalism as a means for the bourgeoisie to protect their economic interests and gain political power. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
On the other hand, Subaltern Studies scholars focus on cultural and social factors, such as the agency of subaltern groups and their cultural practices, in shaping Indian nationalism.
They argue that nationalism was not just an economic struggle, but also a cultural and social movement that sought to challenge the oppressive structures of society.
Furthermore, Marxist historians often view nationalism as a means to establish a class-based society, where the bourgeoisie would gain political power and protect their economic interests.
They believe that nationalism was a necessary step towards achieving a socialist or communist revolution in India. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
On the other hand, Subaltern Studies scholars view nationalism as a more complex phenomenon, shaped by diverse social and cultural factors.
They emphasize the heterogeneity and diversity of Indian society and the multiple struggles and resistances of different subaltern groups, without necessarily seeing nationalism as a means to a socialist or communist end.
Moreover, Marxist historians tend to focus on the role of leaders and political organizations in shaping Indian nationalism, while Subaltern Studies scholars highlight the grassroots movements and localized struggles of subaltern groups.
Marxist historians often analyze the political ideologies and strategies of nationalist leaders, such as the Indian National Congress and its leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They emphasize the role of these leaders in mobilizing the masses and articulating the demands of the bourgeoisie and capitalist class.
On the other hand, Subaltern Studies scholars focus on the agency and resistance of subaltern groups at the local level, such as peasant uprisings, labor strikes, and tribal revolts, which contributed to the wider national movement.
Another key difference is the approach to sources and methodology. Marxist historians often rely on materialist and class-based analysis, using economic and political sources to understand the dynamics of Indian nationalism.
They focus on documents such as government records, newspapers, and official correspondence to reconstruct the history of nationalism.
On the other hand, Subaltern Studies scholars adopt a more interdisciplinary and multi-method approach, drawing on diverse sources, including oral traditions, folklore, songs, religious texts, and local histories, to capture the voices and experiences of the subaltern groups. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They argue that these sources provide insights into the cultural, social, and everyday life of the marginalized, which are often overlooked in traditional historical sources.
Despite these differences, there are also areas of convergence between the views of Marxist historians and Subaltern Studies on Indian nationalism.
Both approaches highlight the oppressive nature of British colonial rule in India and its impact on Indian society and economy.
They acknowledge the exploitation and suppression faced by various social groups, including workers, peasants, tribals, and lower-caste communities, under colonialism, and their resistance against it.
Both approaches also recognize the importance of social mobilization and collective action in the process of nationalism, whether led by the bourgeoisie or the subaltern groups. MHI-09 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Furthermore, both Marxist historians and Subaltern Studies scholars challenge the dominant narrative of Indian nationalism that has often been shaped by the perspectives of the elite or dominant groups.
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They aim to uncover the voices and experiences of the marginalized and subaltern groups who have been marginalized or silenced in traditional historiography.
They seek to highlight the agency, resistance, and contributions of these groups in shaping Indian nationalism and challenging the existing power structures.