MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
STATE AND SOCIETY IN LATIN AMERICA
MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023
Q 1. Critically examine the process of import substitution industrialization in Latin America.
Q 2. Examine the historical role of the Church in Latin America.
Q 3. Critically examine the cyclical pattern of the transition to democracy in Latin America.
Q 4. What are the causes for the military intervention in Latin American politics?
Q 5. Describe the theories of development applicable to Latin America.
Q 6. a) Rise of neo-liberalism in Latin America
b) Revolutionary movements in Latin America
Q 7. a) Rise and fall of Pampas as a food basket for Europe
b) Regional integration in Latin America
Q 8. a) Development model in Latin America
b) New social movements in Latin American politics
Q 9. a) Plantation economy in Trinidad
b) Simon Bolivar
Q 10. a) Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua
b) Women’s movements in Latin America
Ans 1. Import substitution industrialization (ISI) was a development strategy implemented by various Latin American countries in the 20th century.
The primary aim of ISI was to promote industrialization in the region by restricting imports of manufactured goods and encouraging the production of goods domestically. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
ISI policies were implemented in Latin American countries from the 1930s to the 1970s, and their success varied from country to country.
In this essay, I will critically examine the process of ISI in Latin America. I will analyze the factors that led to the implementation of ISI, the policies that were implemented, the successes and failures of ISI, and the reasons for its decline in the 1970s.
Factors Leading to the Implementation of ISI
The implementation of ISI in Latin America was driven by various factors. One of the primary factors was the Great Depression, which began in 1929 and led to a decline in demand for Latin American exports.
As a result, Latin American countries experienced a significant decline in their economies, and many were forced to seek alternative sources of revenue.
Additionally, World War II disrupted international trade and increased the cost of imports, which made it more difficult for Latin American countries to import goods.
These factors led many Latin American countries to adopt ISI policies to promote industrialization and reduce their dependence on imports.
Another factor that led to the implementation of ISI was the desire for economic independence. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Many Latin American countries were colonies of European powers, and their economies were structured to benefit their colonizers.
ISI was seen as a way to break free from this dependency and promote economic independence.
Additionally, ISI was viewed as a way to promote national development and reduce inequality by creating jobs and increasing wages.
Policies Implemented Under ISI
The policies implemented under ISI varied from country to country, but they generally involved the use of protectionist measures to promote the development of domestic industries. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the primary measures used was import substitution. This involved restricting the importation of manufactured goods and promoting the production of these goods domestically.
Tariffs and other trade barriers were used to make imports more expensive, while subsidies were provided to domestic producers to encourage the production of goods domestically.
Another policy implemented under ISI was the promotion of state-led industrialization. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Governments played a significant role in promoting industrialization by investing in infrastructure, providing subsidies to industries, and regulating the economy.
State-led industrialization was seen as a way to promote economic development and reduce dependence on foreign countries.
Successes and Failures of ISI
The success of ISI varied from country to country. Some Latin American countries, such as Brazil and Mexico, were able to successfully industrialize under ISI policies.
These countries were able to develop domestic industries, create jobs, and increase wages. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Additionally, ISI policies helped to reduce the dependence of these countries on foreign countries and promote economic independence.
However, other Latin American countries, such as Argentina, were not as successful under ISI policies.
These countries experienced high levels of inflation, debt, and unemployment, which led to economic instability.
Additionally, the protectionist policies implemented under ISI led to the development of inefficient industries that were not competitive in the global market.
Reasons for the Decline of ISI MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
ISI declined in the 1970s for various reasons. One of the primary reasons was the oil crisis of 1973.
The oil crisis led to an increase in the cost of imported oil, which made it more difficult for Latin American countries to import goods.
Additionally, the oil crisis led to a decline in demand for Latin American exports, which led to a decline in their economies.
Another reason for the decline of ISI was the debt crisis of the 1980s. Latin American countries had borrowed heavily to finance their ISI policies, and the debt crisis made it difficult for them to repay their debts.
Additionally, the inefficiencies created by ISI policies led to a decline in productivity and competitiveness, which made it difficult for these countries to earn foreign exchange to repay their debts. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Finally, the rise of neoliberalism in the 1980s also contributed to the decline of ISI. Neoliberalism promoted free trade and reduced government intervention in the economy, which was in direct opposition to the protectionist policies implemented under ISI.
Many Latin American countries began to adopt neoliberal policies in the 1980s, which led to the dismantling of ISI policies and a shift towards free trade and market-oriented policies.
Critique of ISI
ISI has been both praised and criticized for its impact on Latin America. Supporters of ISI argue that it promoted industrialization and reduced dependence on foreign countries. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Additionally, ISI was seen as a way to promote economic development and reduce inequality by creating jobs and increasing wages.
However, critics of ISI argue that it led to inefficiencies and a lack of competitiveness in domestic industries.
Additionally, the protectionist policies implemented under ISI led to a decline in productivity and innovation. MPSE-002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Critics also argue that ISI policies were too focused on industrialization and ignored the development of agriculture and other sectors.