MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL THOUGHT IN MODERN INDIA
MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023
Q 1. Discuss state and sovereignty in ancient India.
Q 2. How was the idea of India conceived by the Orientalists and the Nationalists?
Q 3. Write a note on religio-political ideas of Dayanand Saraswati.
Q 4. Examine Swami Vivekananda’s views on nationalism.
Q 5. Elaborate the salient features of V.D. Savarkar’s Hindu nationalism.
Q 6. a) Social ideas of Jyotiba Phule
b) Two nation theory of M.A. Jinnah
Q 7. a) E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker and Dravidian Mobilisation
b) Pandita Ramabai on Patriarchy
Q 8. a) Gandhi’s concept of Sarvodya
b) Gandhi on Gram Swaraj
Q 9. a) Jawaharlal Nehru’s ideas on culture
b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar on social justice
Q 10. a) Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas on nationalism
b) M.N. Roy’s Radical Humanism
Ans. State and sovereignty in ancient India were complex and multifaceted concepts that evolved over time as different civilizations and empires rose and fell throughout the region. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
From the Indus Valley Civilization to the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, the notion of state and sovereignty underwent significant transformations, shaping the political landscape and the structure of governance in ancient India.
The concept of state in ancient India was closely tied to the idea of kingship. The king, also known as the raja or maharaja, held a central position in the state and was considered the embodiment of sovereignty.
The king’s authority was legitimized through various sources, such as religious beliefs, social customs, and divine right theories. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The king was considered the guardian of dharma, or righteousness, and was expected to rule with wisdom, justice, and benevolence.
The state in ancient India was typically organized as a monarchy, where the king held absolute power and authority.
The king was often assisted by a council of ministers and advisors, who provided counsel and assistance in the administration of the state.
The king’s court was also the center of culture, art, and learning, where scholars, poets, and philosophers gathered to discuss and debate various subjects.
One of the earliest examples of state and sovereignty in ancient India can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization (2600-1900 BCE), which was one of the earliest urban civilizations in the world. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Indus Valley Civilization had well-planned cities, advanced agricultural practices, and a sophisticated system of governance.
While the exact nature of the political system in the Indus Valley Civilization remains unclear, it is believed that the cities were governed by a central authority, possibly in the form of a king or a priest-king.
The Vedic period (1500-500 BCE) marked a significant shift in the political landscape of ancient India. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Vedic texts, known as the Vedas, provided the foundation for Hinduism and laid the groundwork for the social and political structure of ancient India.
During this period, kingship was recognized as a divine institution, and the king was considered the protector of the Vedic religion and the upholder of dharma.
The king’s authority was believed to be derived from the gods, and he was expected to rule in accordance with the principles of dharma.
The Mahajanapadas (600-300 BCE) were the first major political entities in ancient India after the Vedic period. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These were powerful and prosperous kingdoms that emerged in different regions of India, such as Magadha, Kosala, and Vatsa.
The Mahajanapadas were characterized by a complex system of governance, with the king at the helm of the state.
The king’s authority was often challenged by local chieftains and nobles, leading to frequent wars and conflicts.
The Mahajanapadas also witnessed the rise of republican states, known as ganasanghas, where power was shared among different clans and guilds through a system of councils.
The Mauryan Empire (322-185 BCE), founded by Chandragupta Maurya, marked a significant milestone in the evolution of state and sovereignty in ancient India.
The Mauryan Empire was the first major empire in ancient India, spanning across a vast territory that extended from present-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh.
Chandragupta Maurya, with the help of his advisor Chanakya, established a strong centralized state with a well-organized administrative system.
The Mauryan Empire was known for its efficient and effective governance. The king, who held the title of samrat, was considered the supreme authority and wielded immense power. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The king’s authority was legitimized through the concept of dhamma, which encompassed the principles of righteousness, morality, and benevolence.
Ashoka , one of the most famous Mauryan kings, promoted the concept of dhamma as the guiding principle of governance, advocating for moral and ethical conduct, social welfare, and religious tolerance.
The Mauryan Empire had a well-structured administrative system with a complex hierarchy of officials and bureaucrats who assisted the king in governing the empire.
The empire was divided into provinces, districts, and villages, each with its own administrative machinery. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The king appointed governors, ministers, and other officials to oversee various aspects of governance, such as taxation, justice, and defense.
The Mauryan Empire also had a system of spies and emissaries who kept the king informed about the affairs of the state and helped maintain law and order.
The king’s court was a center of intellectual and cultural activities, with scholars, poets, and philosophers offering advice and guidance to the king.
However, despite the centralized governance of the Mauryan Empire, there were also regional and local powers that retained a degree of autonomy.
The Mauryan kings allowed a certain level of self-governance to local communities and respected the customs and traditions of different regions.
The Mauryan Empire, therefore, can be seen as a combination of both centralization and decentralization of power.MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
With the decline of the Mauryan Empire, several regional powers emerged in different parts of India, leading to a fragmented political landscape.
During this period, known as the “Classical Age of India” (200 BCE – 500 CE), various dynasties and kingdoms, such as the Kushanas, Satavahanas, and Guptas, ruled different parts of India.
The concept of state and sovereignty continued to evolve during this period, with regional rulers adapting and modifying the existing systems of governance according to their needs and circumstances.
The Gupta Empire (320-550 CE), in particular, is considered a “Golden Age” in Indian history, known for its achievements in art, science, and literature.
The Gupta kings ruled through a decentralized system of governance, where local and regional powers were given significant autonomy.
The Gupta kings followed the concept of “Dharma Rajya,” where the king was expected to rule with justice, benevolence, and respect for the customs and traditions of different communities. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Gupta Empire had a well-organized administrative system, with officials appointed at different levels of governance.
The king was advised by a council of ministers, and the empire was divided into provinces, districts, and villages.
The local communities were allowed to govern themselves according to their own customs and traditions, as long as they remained loyal to the Gupta kings.
One of the notable features of state and sovereignty in ancient India was the close relationship between religion and governance.
Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism were the dominant religions during this period, and their principles and teachings influenced the political systems and practices of the time. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The king was often seen as the upholder of dharma, and religious institutions played a significant role in the administration of the state.
The king patronized and supported religious institutions, such as temples, monasteries, and universities, which were centers of learning, culture, and art.
The religious institutions also played a role in maintaining social order and moral values in society, and the king sought their guidance in matters of governance.
However, there were also instances where conflicts arose between different religious groups, leading to challenges in maintaining religious harmony and tolerance.
In ancient India, state and sovereignty were also closely tied to the concept of social hierarchy and caste system. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The caste system was a complex social structure that divided society into different groups or castes based on occupation, birth, and social status.
The king belonged to the highest caste, and the state was often seen as an extension of the king’s rule over his subjects.
administration of the state, as each caste had its own set of rights, privileges, and duties.
The Brahmins, who were considered the highest caste and were responsible for performing religious rituals and providing guidance to the king, had significant influence over the king’s decisions and policies.
The Kshatriyas, who were the warrior class, held positions in the military and administration, while the Vaishyas, who were merchants and farmers, contributed to the economy of the state through trade and agriculture.
The Shudras, who were considered lower in the caste hierarchy, served as laborers and were often excluded from positions of power and authority.
The caste system, while providing a sense of social order and structure, also posed challenges in terms of governance and social equality.
It led to the exclusion and marginalization of certain groups of people, and there were instances of discrimination and exploitation based on caste.
However, it is worth mentioning that the caste system was not a static system and underwent changes over time, with different rulers and dynasties modifying and adapting it to suit their needs. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another important aspect of state and sovereignty in ancient India was the role of law and justice.
The concept of dharma, which encompassed the principles of duty, righteousness, and justice, was considered the guiding principle of governance.
The king was expected to rule with dharma and ensure that justice was upheld in society.
The ancient Indian legal system was based on the principles of dharma, which were derived from religious texts, such as the Vedas and the Dharmashastras.
The king was the supreme law-giver and was responsible for enacting and enforcing laws. The legal system included both civil and criminal laws and was administered by courts and judges. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The king appointed judges and officials to preside over courts and settle disputes. The legal system considered various factors, such as customs, traditions, and religious teachings, in delivering justice.
There were also provisions for appeal and review of court decisions.
The concept of sovereignty in ancient India was closely tied to the concept of rajadharma, which was the duty of the king towards his subjects.
The king was expected to protect and promote the welfare of his subjects and ensure their well-being. The king’s authority and power were derived from his ability to uphold dharma and rule with justice.
However, the concept of sovereignty was not absolute, as the king was also expected to consult and seek advice from his council of ministers, scholars, and other stakeholders. MPSE-004 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The king’s decisions were expected to be in the best interest of the people and in accordance with dharma.
The people also had certain rights and freedoms, such as the right to petition the king, voice their grievances, and participate in decision-making processes.