MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Research Methods in Rural Development

**MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023**

MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023

Attempt any One of the following

**Q 1. **Describe the methods of sampling in Social Research.

**Q 2**. How do you formulate a research problem? Illustrate your answer with suitable examples from the area of rural development.

**Q 3.** What is phenomenology? Explain the phenomenological approaches in social research.

Attempt any Two of the following:

**Q 1.** What is action research? Explain.

**Q 2. **What do you mean by observation? Discuss its types, stages, and limitations.

**Q 3.** Explain the difference between experimental research and descriptive research.

Attempt any Five of the following

**Q 1**. Types of Questionnaires

**Q 2**. Evaluation Research

**Q 3. **Research in Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

**Q 4.** Hypothesis

**Q 5. **Diagnostic Research

**Q 6. **Applied Research

**Q 7. **Case Study

**Q 8. **Quantitative and Qualitative Data

**Ans 1. **

Sampling is a critical step in social research that involves selecting a subset of individuals or groups from a larger population to study.

It is essential to ensure that the findings of a study are generalizable to the broader population. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

There are various methods of sampling in social research, each with its strengths and limitations.

In this essay, we will discuss some of the most commonly used methods of sampling in social research, including probability sampling and non-probability sampling.

**Probability Sampling**:

Probability sampling methods are based on the principles of random selection, where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the study.

These methods allow researchers to calculate the probability of each individual’s inclusion in the sample, which enables them to make inferences about the entire population. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

**Some common probability sampling methods are:**

**Simple Random Sampling: **This is the most basic form of probability sampling where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

For example, if a researcher wants to study the attitudes of students in a college, they could assign a unique number to each student, use a random number generator, and select a predetermined number of students based on the generated numbers.

**Stratified Random Sampling:** In this method, the population is divided into different strata based on certain characteristics, such as age, gender, or income.

Then, a random sample is drawn from each stratum in proportion to its size in the population. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This method ensures that each stratum is adequately represented in the sample and allows for more accurate subgroup comparisons.

**Cluster Sampling: **This method involves selecting groups or clusters of individuals rather than individual members of the population.

Clusters are usually based on geographic location, such as selecting schools or neighborhoods.

The clusters are then randomly sampled, and all individuals within the selected clusters are included in the study.

Cluster sampling is efficient and cost-effective but may introduce cluster-level bias if clusters are not homogeneous. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

**Non-Probability Sampling:**

Non-probability sampling methods do not rely on random selection and do not allow for the calculation of precise probabilities for inclusion in the sample.

However, they can still be useful in certain research situations, such as when studying hard-to-reach populations or when time and resources are limited.

**Some common non-probability sampling methods are:**

**Convenience Sampling: **This method involves selecting individuals who are readily available or easy to access. For example, a researcher might choose to survey students in a specific class or visitors at a particular event.

Convenience sampling is convenient and cost-effective but may introduce selection bias, as the sample may not be representative of the broader population.

**Purposive Sampling:** In this method, the researcher deliberately selects individuals who meet specific criteria that are relevant to the research question.

For example, a researcher studying the experiences of immigrants might purposively sample individuals who have recently migrated to the country.

Purposive sampling allows for in-depth exploration of specific cases, but may not be representative of the broader population.MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

**Snowball Sampling:** This method involves starting with a few participants who meet the research criteria and then asking them to refer other potential participants.

This process is repeated, and the sample “snowballs” as more participants are referred.

Snowball sampling is useful for studying hidden or marginalized populations, but may introduce bias as participants may refer individuals who share similar characteristics.

**Quota Sampling:** This method involves selecting individuals based on pre-determined quotas, such as a certain number of participants from different age groups, genders, or other characteristics. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Quota sampling is commonly used in market research and opinion polling, but it may not be representative of the broader population as the selection is not random.

It is important for researchers to carefully consider the research question, study design, and available resources when selecting a sampling method.

Researchers should also acknowledge the limitations of their chosen sampling method and clearly report the sampling method used in their research to enhance the transparency and rigor of their findings.

In addition to the above-discussed methods, there are also other specialized sampling methods that researchers may use in specific research contexts.

For example, in qualitative research, purposeful sampling, which involves selecting individuals who can provide rich and diverse information related to the research question, is often used. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

In mixed methods research, where both quantitative and qualitative data are collected, researchers may use a combination of probability and non-probability sampling methods to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the research problem.

Furthermore, researchers should also pay attention to issues related to sample size, as it can impact the statistical power and generalizability of research findings.

A larger sample size generally provides greater statistical power and allows for more precise estimations, but it may also be more costly and time-consuming.

On the other hand, a smaller sample size may be more feasible in terms of resources, but may have limitations in terms of generalizability and statistical power.

**MRD-103 Solved Free Assignment 2023**

Researchers should carefully consider the appropriate sample size based on the research question, study design, and available resources.

Overall, sampling is a crucial step in social research, and researchers need to carefully select an appropriate sampling method that aligns with their research question, study design, and available resources. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Probability sampling methods provide a higher level of representativeness and allow for precise calculations of probabilities, while non-probability sampling methods may be more practical but introduce bias and have limitations in generalizability.

Researchers should also consider issues related to sample size and clearly report the sampling method used in their research to enhance the transparency and rigor of their findings. MRD-104 Solved Free Assignment 2023